II. While Reading Activities
- policing |pəˈlēs| verb [ with obj. ] (often as noun policing) enforce the provisions of (a law, agreement, or treaty): the regulations will be policed by factory inspectors.
- intermittent |ˌintərˈmitnt| adjective-occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or steady: intermittent rain.
- forgo fôrˈgō| (also forego) verb (forgoes, forgoing, forwent; past participle forgone) [ with obj. ]omit or decline to take (something pleasant or valuable); go without: she wanted to forgo the dessert and leave while they could.
- physique |fiˈzēk| noun-the form, size, and development of a person’s body: a sturdy, muscular physique | they were much alike in physique.
- ultrasound |ˈəltrəˌsound| noun-sound or other vibrations having an ultrasonic frequency, particularly as used in medical imaging. an ultrasound scan, esp. one of a pregnant woman to examine the fetus.
- hermaphrodite |hərˈmafrədīt| noun- a person or animal having both male and female sex organs or other sexual characteristics, either abnormally or (in the case of some organisms) as the natural condition.
- ambiguous |amˈbigyo͞oəs| adjective-open to more than one interpretation; having a double meaning: the question is rather ambiguous | ambiguous phrases. unclear or inexact.
- testosterone |teˈstästəˌrōn| noun-a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex.
- tenacious |təˈnāSHəs|adjective-tending to keep a firm hold of something; clinging or adhering closely: a tenacious grip.
- masquerading|ˌmaskəˈrād| verb- pretend to be someone one is not: a journalist masquerading as a man in distress.
Reading Comprehension: Fill-ins
In 1938, the gender of an athlete was again in dispute. The German high-jumper Dora Ratjen, a former fourth-place Olympian who won a gold medal at the European Athletics Championship, was suddenly identified as male, prompting Germany to quietly return the medal. When Ratjen’s case became public years later — he claimed that the Nazis pressured him to pose as a woman for three years — it validated the growing anxiety about gender fraud in athletics.
Grammar Focus: Prepositions
At the Atlanta Games in 1996, one of the few times the I.O.C. allowed detailed intersex-related data to be released, seven of the eight women who were found to have a Y chromosome turned out to be androgen insensitive: Their bodies couldn’t use the testosterone they made… The judges concluded that requiring women like Chand to change their bodies in order to compete was unjustifiably discriminatory.