II. While Reading Activities
- colonization |kälənəˈzāSH(ə)n| noun the action or process of settling among and establishing control over the indigenous people of an area: Africa boasts a tradition of higher education institutions that predate Western colonization | the European invasion and colonization of the Americas.
- Controversy |ˈkäntrəˌvərsē| noun (plural controversies) disagreement, typically when prolonged, public, and heated: he sometimes caused controversy because of his forceful views | the announcement ended a protracted controversy.
- indigenous |inˈdijənəs| adjective originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; native: the indigenous peoples of Siberia | coriander is indigenous to southern Europe.
- interactions |ˌin(t)ərˈakSH(ə)n| noun reciprocal action or influence: ongoing interaction between the two languages.
- enslave |inˈslāvenˈslāv| verb [with object] make (someone) a slave.
- arduous |ˈärjo͞oəs| adjective involving or requiring strenuous effort; difficult and tiring: an arduous journey.
- labor |ˈlābər| (British labour) noun 1 work, especially hard physical work: the price of repairs includes labor and parts | manual labor.
- Taino |ˈtīnō|noun (plural same or Tainos)1 a member of an extinct Arawak people formerly inhabiting the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas.
- mines |mīn| noun 1 an excavation in the earth for extracting coal or other minerals: a copper mine.
- prestige |preˈstēZHpreˈstēj| noun widespread respect and admiration felt for someone or something on the basis of a perception of their achievements or quality: he experienced a tremendous increase in prestige following his victory.
Source: New Oxford American Dictionary
Grammar Focus: Structure and Usage
I -3- an
Columbus landed on an unknown Caribbean island.
II – 3- to
Columbus sent thousands of Taino ‘Indians’ to Spain to be sold.
III – 3 – a
In 1500, the king and queen sent in a royal administrator, who detained Columbus.
Reading Comprehension Fill-ins
In the broader sense, historians have used the phrase “Columbian exchange” to describe the exchange of plants, animals and goods between the East and West that his voyages sparked.
Though the effects were widespread and cannot all be dismissed as negative, critics of Columbus have asserted that the worst aspects of this exchange added up to biological warfare.