II. While Reading Activities
- global warming |ˈɡlōbəl ˈwôrmiNG| noun a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants.
- impacts noun |ˈimˌpakt| • the effect or influence of one person, thing, or action, on another: our regional measures have had a significant impact on unemployment.
- disruptive |disˈrəptiv| adjective causing or tending to cause disruption: disruptive and delinquent children | the hours of work are disruptive to home life.
- undeniable |ˌəndəˈnīəb(ə)l| adjective unable to be denied or disputed: it is an undeniable fact that some dogs are easier to train than others | ornate fireplaces give the place undeniable class.
- abdication |ˌabdəˈkāSH(ə)n| noun failure to fulfill a responsibility or duty: we are witnessing an abdication of responsibility on the part of state governments.
- arson |ˈärs(ə)n| noun the criminal act of deliberately setting fire to property: police are treating the fire as arson | [as modifier] : an arson attack.
- irreversible |ˌi(r)rəˈvərsəb(ə)l| adjective not able to be undone or altered: she suffered irreversible damage to her health.
- preindustrial |ˌprēinˈdəstrēəl| adjective relating to a time before industrialization: a preindustrial society.
- *Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect, causing climate change. Most is carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. The largest emitters include coal in China and large oil and gas companies, many state-owned by OPEC and Russia.
- ecosystem |ˈēkōˌsistəm| noun Ecology a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
New Oxford American Dictionary
Grammar Focus: Structure and Usage
I – 2 – many
Coral reefs in many locations are already beyond tipping points.
II – 1 – is
Adaptation is finding ways to live with the change.
III – 2 – are
The people who are least responsible are the most affected.
Reading Comprehension: Identify The Speakers
- UN Secretary-General António Guterres “called the report “an atlas of human suffering and a damning indictment of failed climate leadership,” and he warned that “delay means death.”
- Hans-Otto Pörtner, a co-chair on the report and a scientist at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. “At warming of 2 degrees, for example, as many as 18% of all land species will be at high risk of extinction, according to the report. At 4 degrees, 50% of species are threatened.”
- Adelle Thomas, an author on the report and a climate scientist at the University of the Bahamas. “We have seen that the vast majority of climate finance goes towards mitigation rather than adaptation…So although adaptation is taking place, there is not enough funding, and it is not a high priority, which are then leading to these limits.”
- Tabea Lissner, a scientist at Climate Analytics and an author on the report, told CNN. “What we really wanted to show is that ecosystems and all sectors of human society and human well-being fundamentally depends on water.”
- Eric Chu, an author of the report and scientist at University of California. “We live in an unequal world…The losses are inequitably distributed among communities, especially those communities that have historically been disadvantaged from decision-making, and now we’re seeing some of that inequality manifest as well in the choices we make to adapt.”
- Camille Parmesan, an ecologist at CNRS Ecology Station and an author of the report. “as climate change worsens, more indigenous people will lose the land, water and biodiversity they depend on.
- Vivek Shandas, a professor of climate adaptation and urban policy at Portland State University. “When the Earth doesn’t become farmable, the dependence in the livelihood that communities have on farming and on production of food, not only will the incomes be lost, but that food security will be lost.”