II. While Reading Activities
- *E.P.A. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection
- cutting edge |ˈˌkədiNG ˈˌej| [in singular] the latest or most advanced stage in the development of something: researchers at the cutting edge of molecular biology.
- memo |ˈmemō| noun (plural memos) informal; a written message, especially in business.
- breakdown |ˈbrākˌdoun| noun • an explanatory analysis, especially of statistics: a detailed cost breakdown.
- morality |məˈralədē| noun (plural moralities) principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior.
- efficient |əˈfiSHənt| adjective(especially of a system or machine) achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense: fluorescent lamps are efficient at converting electricity into light.
- hone |hōn| verb [with object] refine or perfect (something) over a period of time: she has taken numerous workshops to hone her skills over the years.
- gauge |ɡāj| verb [with object] estimate or determine the magnitude, amount, or volume of: astronomers can gauge the star’s intrinsic brightness.
- cutback |ˈkətˌbak| noun an act or instance of reducing something, typically expenditures: cutbacks in defense spending.
- innovation |ˌinəˈvāSH(ə)n| noun the action or process of innovating. a new method, idea, product, etc.: technological innovations designed to save energy.
Sources: New Oxford American Dictionary — *Wikipedia
Grammar Focus: Structure and Usage
I – 2-ways
They are developing alternate ways of testing chemicals.
II – 1-helps
Animal testing helps manufacturers.
III – 3-to
The F.D.A. still uses animal testing to a certain extent.
- F- According to the article, the E.P.A. aims to reduce the amount of studies that involve mammal testing.
- T- This is the first time a government agency has made such a commitment.
- F-Tracey Woodruff is a professor at the University of California.
- F-This decision was criticized by environmentalists and researchers.
- F- The agency said it would also invest $4.25 million in developing alternate ways of testing chemicals that do not involve animals.
- T -Andrew Wheeler is the E.P.A. Administrator.
- NA – Many zoos will benefit from this decision.
- T – The E.P.A. has for decades required testing on a variety of animals — including rats, dogs, birds and fish.
- F – Animal testing helps manufacturers prove to the E.P.A. that their chemicals meet federal safety standards.
- T – The F.D.A. has been experimenting with alternatives to animal testing for several years.
Who Said That?
Identifying Speakers from the Article
- Tracey Woodruff, a professor at the University of California, San Francisco’s school of medicine.
- Tara Rabin, an F.D.A. spokeswoman.
- Kitty Block, the president and chief executive of the Humane Society of the United States.
- Andrew Wheeler the E.P.A. Administrator.
- Kathleen Conlee, the vice president of animal research issues at the Humane Society.