II. While Reading Activities
- * altruist [ al-troo-ist ] noun. a person unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others (opposed to egoist).
- vaccine |vakˈsēn| noun Medicine a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute, treated to act as an antigen without inducing the disease: there is no vaccine against HIV infection.
- volunteer |ˌvälənˈtir| noun a person who freely offers to take part in an enterprise or undertake a task.
- entail verb |inˈtālenˈtāl| [with object] involve (something) as a necessary or inevitable part or consequence: a situation that entails considerable risks.
- monitor |ˈmänədər| verb [with object] observe and check the progress or quality of (something) over a period of time; keep under systematic review: equipment was installed to monitor air quality.
- trial |ˈtrī(ə)l| noun 2 a test of the performance, qualities, or suitability of someone or something: clinical trials must establish whether the new hip replacements are working.
- experimental |ikˌsperəˈmen(t)l| adjective (of a new invention or product) based on untested ideas or techniques and not yet established or finalized: an experimental drug.
- immune |iˈmyo͞on| adjective resistant to a particular infection or toxin owing to the presence of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells: they were naturally immune to hepatitis B.
- sufficient |səˈfiSHənt| adjective & det. enough; adequate: [as adjective] : a small income that was sufficient for her needs | [as determiner] : they had sufficient resources to survive.
- placebo |pləˈsēbō| noun (plural placebos) a substance that has no therapeutic effect, used as a control in testing new drugs.
New Oxford American Dictionary
Grammar Focus: Structure and Usage
A number of sites maintain lists of coronavirus vaccine trials.
II – 3-trial
Only a Phase three trial allows researchers to study if their vaccine works.
III – 2- is
The approach is controversial because Covid-19 has no cure and can be fatal.
Identify The Speakers
- Dr. Nir Eyal, the director of the Center for Population-Level Bioethics at the Rutgers School of Public Health. “There’s no guarantee that you’ll actually be protected from the coronavirus at any phase of a vaccine trial, no matter how hyped the product has been.”
- Dr. Daniel Hoft, director of the Saint Louis University Center for Vaccine Development. “Organizers try to avoid creating a financial incentive. So even if they could pay much more, they don’t.”
- Dr. Michael Mina, an immunologist at Harvard University. “It may be possible to get the coronavirus again, but it’s highly unlikely that it would be possible in a short window of time from initial infection or make people sicker the second time.”
- Arthur L. Caplan, a bioethicist. “If the money seems extraordinarily attractive to you, think again… You don’t want to let compensation blind you to the need to pay attention to the risks.”