II. While Reading Activities
- underestimate |ˌəndərˈestəˌmāt| ] verb estimate (something) to be smaller or less important than it actually is: the administration has grossly underestimated the extent of the problem.
- intellectual |ˌin(t)əˈlek(t)SH(o͞o)əl| adjective-possessing a highly developed intellect: you are an intellectual girl, like your mother.
- partisan |ˈpärdəzən| noun– a strong supporter of a party, cause, or person.
- define |dəˈfīn| verb [state or describe exactly the nature, scope, or meaning of: the contract will seek to define the client’s obligations.
- fruit fly |ˈfro͞ot ˌflī| noun- a small fly that feeds on fruit in both its adult and larval stages.
- cognition |ˌkäɡˈniSH(ə)n| noun -the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
- alternative |ôlˈtərnədiv| adjective (of one or more things) available as another possibility: the various alternative methods for resolving disputes | the alternative definition of democracy as popular power.
- arbitrary |ˈärbəˌtrerē| adjective-based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system: his mealtimes were entirely arbitrary.
- solve |sälv| verb-find an answer to, explanation for, or means of effectively dealing with (a problem or mystery): the policy could solve the town’s housing crisis | a murder investigation that has never been solved.
- imitation |ˌiməˈtāSH(ə)n| noun-a thing intended to simulate or copy something else: [ as modifier ] : an imitation diamond.
Once, insects were thought to be little automatons, hard-wired to take certain limited actions. Now evidence is growing that the abilities, even of fruit flies, approach something that isn’t the same as human thinking, but isn’t pure hard-wired instinct either.
The way the bees learned was important, too. They were pre-trained to expect a treat in the center of a platform. But having to push a ball to the center to get the treat was something they hadn’t seen.